NASA indicates that these temperatures are based on data from NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). Anomalies are defined relative to a base period of 1951 to 1980. The data file used to create this visualization can be accessed here: data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/tabledata_v4/GLB.Ts+dSST.csv.
The "climate spiral" is a visualization designed by climate scientist Ed Hawkins from the National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Reading: https://www.climate-lab-book.ac.uk/sp.... Climate spiral visualizations have been widely distributed; a version was even part of the opening ceremony of the Rio de Janeiro Olympics. Download the video: https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4975